Biliary drainage for malignant hilar strictures includes endoscopic and percutaneous approaches. In general, endoscopic drainage is the first approach for Bismuth types I and II, while percutaneous drainage is recommended for Bismuth types III and IV. However, a multidisciplinary approach involving an endoscopist and radiologist is needed for a far-advanced malignant hilar stricture, and endoscopic and percutaneous drainage can be used in a complementary manner.
|Title of host publication||Advanced ERCP for Complicated and Refractory Biliary and Pancreatic Diseases|
|Number of pages||21|
|Publication status||Published - 2019 Jan 1|
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes