Objectives: We investigated the association between autoantibodies against non-myeloperoxidase (MPO) neutrophil granule antigens and activity of Behçet's disease (BD). Methods: We consecutively enrolled 51 BD patients. We assessed clinical data and BD activity using patients' index scores from the Behçet's Disease Current Activity Form and we performed tests for antibodies against proteinase 3 (PR3), MPO, bactericidal permeability increasing protein (BPI), cathepsin G, elastase, lactoferrin and lysozyme. Results: The median patient index score was 2.0, and 56.9% of patients had active BD. In multivariate analysis of variables with significant correlations, only anti-lysozyme showed a significant correlation with BD activity (P = 0.002). In multivariate logistic regression analyses of variables, when patients were classified into groups according to the optimal cutoff levels of erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP) and anti-lysozyme (ESR > 42.5 mm/h, CRP > 1.35 mg/L and anti-lysozyme > 2.95 IU/mL), the variable with independent predictive value was anti-lysozyme (odds ratio 8.384, P = 0.015). Conclusion: Anti-lysozyme was significantly correlated with disease activity score and it was the only independent value to predict active disease in patients with BD. Furthermore, patients having anti-lysozyme levels ≥ 2.95 IU/mL had a significantly higher risk of having active BD than those who did not.
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