Background: The angiographic 'no-reflow' phenomenon after primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) is associated with a poor short-term and long-term clinical prognosis of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Although the increasing use of primary drug-eluting stent (DES) deployment for STEMI resulted in reduced adverse clinical outcomes, the prevalence of no-reflow has been unchanged. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the predictors for no-reflow for STEMI and identify such high-risk patients in the DES era. Methods: The study prospectively enrolled 300 consecutive STEMI patients (80% men; 57 ± 11 years) who underwent PPCI within 12 h of symptom onset. The no-reflow phenomenon was defined as an angiographic outcome of Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) grade < 3 without accompanying mechanical factors. Results: Compared to normal reflow patients, no-reflow patients (n = 15, 5% of the total study population) were older (64 ± 13 vs. 57 ±11 years; P = 0.019), transferred to hospital later (7.1 ± 3.2 vs. 4.5 ± 3.8 h; P = 0.011), and had a higher TIMI risk score (5.5 ± 2.0 vs. 3.8 ± 2.2; P = 0.004). B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), high sensitivity C-reactive protein, and serum creatinine levels were higher in the no-reflow than the normal reflow group. Multivariate analysis (including clinical, angiographic and procedural variables with a P < 0.2 in univariate analysis) showed that high BNP level on admission was the only independent predictor of no-reflow. The area under the receiver-operating characteristics curve analysis value for BNP was 0.786. BNP ≥ 90 pg/ml showed a sensitivity of 80% and a specificity of 70% for predicting no-reflow after primary DES implantation (OR 14.953, 95% CI 3.131-71.419, P = 0.001). Conclusions: Angiographic 'no-reflow' phenomenon after primary DES implantation for STEMI can be predicted by BNP levels on admission. BNP-guided approach may be useful in identifying patients at high risk of the no-reflow phenomenon after primary stenting.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This study was supported by grants from the Cardiovascular Research Foundation, the Asan Institute for Life Science (#2006-217) and the Korea Health 21 R&D Project, Ministry of Health & Welfare, Korea (0412-CR02-0704-0001).
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine