Serum contains a variety of biomolecules, which play an important role in cell proliferation and survival. We sought to identify the serum factor responsible for mitigating tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-induced apoptosis and to investigate its molecular mechanism. TRAIL induced effective apoptosis without serum, whereas bovine serum decreased apoptosis by suppressing cytochrome c release and caspase activation. Indeed, albumin-bound lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) inhibited TRAIL-induced apoptosis by suppressing caspase activation and cytochrome c release. LPA increased phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-dependent Akt activation, cellular FLICE-inhibitory protein (cFLIP) expression, and Bad phosphorylation, resulting in inhibition of caspase-8 activation and Bad translocation to mitochondria. The antiapoptotic effect of LPA was abrogated by PI3K inhibitor, transfection with dominant-negative Akt, and specific downregulation of cFLIP expression using siRNA and further increased by siRNA-mediated suppression of Bad expression. Moreover, sera from ovarian cancer patients showed more protective effect against TRAIL-induced apoptosis than those from healthy donors, and this protection was suppressed by PI3K inhibitor. Our results indicate that albumin-bound LPA and S1P prevent TRAIL-induced apoptosis by upregulation of cFLIP expression and in part by Bad phosphorylation, through the activation of PI3K/Akt pathway.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by Vascular System Research Center grant from Korea Science and Engineering Foundation. We thank Dr. Peter K Kim (University of Pittsburgh) and Mrs. Elaine Por for helpful comments and critical reading of the manuscript.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Molecular Biology
- Cell Biology