Angiopoietin-related growth factor (AGF), a novel hepatokine, showed therapeutic implications in diabetic and obese animal models. Although the physiologic functions of human AGF have not yet been identified, serum levels of AGF displayed up-regulation in groups with diseases including preeclampsia and diabetes; and there was little association between genetic variability of AGF and metabolic syndrome-related phenotypes. We analyzed serum levels of AGF and other biochemical and anthropometric markers in 216 Korean persons-the numbers of healthy controls and those with metabolic syndrome were 138 and 78, respectively-to confirm research data from animal models. Women had higher AGF than men (265.01 vs 311.84 ng/mL, P = .003). This study showed that serum AGF levels were significantly higher in subjects with metabolic syndrome (325.89 ng/mL) than those in the healthy group (272.44 ng/mL) (P = .003). Among the components of metabolic syndrome, subjects with high waist circumference or decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol had significantly increased serum AGF (271.92 vs 313.68 ng/mL, P = .013; 271.01 vs 310.58 ng/mL, P = .023, respectively). According to multivariate regression analysis, metabolic syndrome itself and waist circumference could be used, in addition to sex and age, as predictors of serum AGF level. In conclusion, serum AGF levels were paradoxically increased in metabolic syndrome, in comparison with data from animal experiments and data on sex, age, and waist circumference. Metabolic syndrome can be a predictor of serum AGF level. Further studies are needed to explore the possibilities of compensatory up-regulation, or AGF resistance, to explain the physiologic roles of AGF in metabolic syndrome.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea funded by the Ministry of Education, Science, and Technology ( 2009-0073513 ). We thank Jason Chung for his assistance in revising the English version of the manuscript.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism