Sex and limb differences in lower extremity alignment and kinematics during drop vertical jumps

Youngmin Chun, Joshua P. Bailey, Jinah Kim, Sung Cheol Lee, Sae Yong Lee

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2 Citations (Scopus)


Sex and limb differences in lower extremity alignments (LEAs) and dynamic lower extremity kinematics (LEKs) during a drop vertical jump were investigated in participants of Korean ethnicity. One hundred healthy males and females participated in a drop vertical jump, and LEAs and LEKs were determined in dominant and non-dominant limbs. A 2-by-2 mixed model MANOVA was performed to compare LEAs and joint kinematics between sexes and limbs (dominant vs. non-dominant). Compared with males, females possessed a significantly greater pelvic tilt, femoral anteversion, Q-angle, and reduced tibial torsion. Females landed on the ground with significantly increased knee extension and ankle plantarflexion with reduced hip abduction and knee adduction, relatively decreased peak hip adduction, knee internal rotation, and increased knee abduction and ankle eversion. The non-dominant limb showed significantly increased hip flexion, abduction, and external rotation; knee flexion and internal rotation; and ankle inversion at initial contact. Further, the non-dominant limb showed increased peak hip and knee flexion, relatively reduced peak hip adduction, and increased knee abduction and internal rotation. It could be suggested that LEAs and LEKs observed in females and non-dominant limbs might contribute to a greater risk of anterior cruciate ligament injuries.

Original languageEnglish
Article number3748
JournalInternational journal of environmental research and public health
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Apr 1

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Pollution
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis


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