Objective: To assess the efficacy of three mechanical decontamination methods in four types of commercially available implants. Material and methods: Ninety-six implants of four commercial brands with different designs (regarding thread depth and thread pitch) were soaked in a surrogate biofilm (ink) and air-dried. Circumferential standardized peri-implant defects with 6 mm in depth and 1.55 mm in width were custom-made with a 3D printer. Stained implants were inserted in the defects and instrumented with three different methods: a titanium brush (TNB), a metallic ultrasonic tip (IST) and an air abrasive (PF). Standardized photographs were taken vertically to the implant axis (flat view), and with angulations of 60° (upper view) and 120° (lower view) to the implant long axis. The percentage of residual stain (PRS) was calculated with the image analysis software. Scanning electron microscope evaluations were performed on the buccal aspect of the implants at the central level of the defect. Results: The efficacy of PF was significantly inferior to the TNB and IST in all implant designs, while there were no significant differences between TNB and IST. IST showed significantly higher PRS in the implant with the highest thread pitch, while the TNB had the highest PRS in the implant with a marked reverse buttress-thread design. The micro-thread design had the lowest values of PRS for all decontamination methods. The apically facing threads represented the areas with highest PRS for all implant designs and decontamination methods. Conclusion: Thread geometry influenced the access of the decontamination devices and in turn its efficacy. Implants with lower thread pitch and thread depth values appeared to have less residual staining. Clinical relevance: Clinicians must be aware of the importance of thread geometry in the decontamination efficacy.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MSIT) (No. NRF-2019R1C1C1006622). Acknowledgements
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