The threshold exposure time for synthesis of vitamin D was simulated by using a radiative transfer model considering variations in total ozone, cloud, and surface conditions. The prediction of total ozone took the form of an empirical linear regression with the variables of meteorological parameters in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere and the climatology value of total ozone. Additionally, to consider cloud extinction after the estimation of clear-sky UV radiation using a radiative transfer model simulation, a cloud modification factor was applied. The UV irradiance was estimated at one-hour intervals, and then, to improve the temporal resolution of the exposure time simulation, it was interpolated to a one-minute resolution. Exposure times from the simulation clearly followed seasonal and diurnal cycles. However, upon comparison with observations, biases with large variations were found, and the discrepancy in the exposure time between the observations and simulations was higher in low UV irradiance conditions. The large deviations in the prediction errors for total ozone and the simplified assumption for the cloud modification factor contributed to the large deviations in exposure time differences between the model estimation and observations. To improve the accuracy of the simulated exposure time, improved predictions of total ozone with a more detailed cloud treatment will be essential.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Atmospheric Science