It was found that ultrasonic nanocrystal surface modification (UNSM) treatment performed on Ti-Nb-Ta-Zr (TNTZ) alloy surface to produce a gradient nanostructured surface layer also resulted in the nano-scale spinodal decomposition of β phase. For the first time, nano-scale spinodal decomposition of β phase induced by ultrasonic mechanical impacts was observed in a short time without any age treatment. The peak shift of XRD to lower angles, (110) β XRD peak splitting, overlapped and asymmetric XRD peaks, satellite reflections in the SAED pattern, and lattice straining in HR-TEM images confirmed nano-scale spinodal decomposition of β phase in the TNTZ alloy induced by UNSM treatment. Nano-scale EDS line-scan probe analysis revealed the β phase separation into nano-scale domains of Ti-rich (β1) and Ti-depleted (β2) phases. HR-TEM images showed the semi-coherent arrangement of Ti-rich (β1) and Ti-depleted (β2) regions. Nanosized grain formation and spinodal decomposition of β phase were induced simultaneously by UNSM treatment. The nano-scale grains, high dislocation density, and semi-coherent interface between the spinodally separated phases contributed to the high hardness of the UNSM-treated TNTZ alloy specimen.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korean Government (MSIT) (No. 2010–0018289 ).
This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korean Government (MSIT) (No. 2010–0018289).
© 2017 Elsevier B.V.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Mechanics of Materials
- Mechanical Engineering
- Metals and Alloys
- Materials Chemistry