Background: Diabetes induces long bone loss and aggravation of periodontitis-induced alveolar bone loss. Simvastatin (SIM), which is a lipid-lowering agent is known to have an anabolic effect on bone. Therefore, we investigated effect of SIM on tibial and alveolar bone loss in type 1 diabetic rats with periodontitis. Methods: Rats were divided into control (C), diabetes with periodontitis (DP), and diabetes with periodontitis treated with SIM (DPS) groups. DP and DPS groups were intravenously injected with streptozotocin (50 mg/kg), and C group was injected with citrate buffer. Seven days later (day 0), periodontitis was induced by ligatures of mandibular first molars. DP and DPS groups were orally administered vehicle or SIM (30 mg/kg) from day 0 to days 3, 10, or 20. Alveolar and tibial bone loss was measured using histological and m-CT analysis alone or in combination. Osteoclast number and sclerostin-positive osteocytes in tibiae were evaluated by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase and immunohistochemical staining, respectively. Glucose, triglyceride (TG), cholesterol (CHO), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) were evaluated. Results: Consistent with diabetes induction, the DP group showed higher glucose and TG levels at all timepoints and higher CHO levels on day 20 than C group. Compared to the DP group, the DPS group exhibited reduced levels of glucose (day 3), TG (days 10 and 20), CHO, and LDL levels (day 20). Bone loss analysis revealed that the DP group had lower bone volume fraction, bone mineral density, bone surface density, and trabecular number in tibiae than C group at all timepoints. Interestingly, the DPS group exhibited elevation of these indices at early stages compared to the DP group. The DPS group showed reduction of osteoclasts (day 3) and sclerostin-positive osteocytes (days 3 and 20) compared with the DP group. There was no difference in alveolar bone loss between DP and DPS groups. Conclusions: These results suggest that SIM attenuates tibial, but not alveolar bone loss in type 1 diabetic rats with periodontitis. Moreover, attenuation of tibial bone loss by SIM may be related to inhibition of osteoclast formation and reduction of sclerostin expression.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)