Skin irritation and inhalation toxicity of biocides evaluated with reconstructed human epidermis and airway models

Jee hyun Hwang, Haengdueng Jeong, Ye on Jung, Ki Taek Nam, Kyung Min Lim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Biocides are widely used in household products. Humans are exposed to biocides through dermal, inhalational, and oral routes. However, information on the dermal and inhalational toxicity of biocides is limited. We evaluated the effects of biocides on the skin and airways using the reconstructed human epidermis model KeraSkin™ and the airway model SoluAirway™. We determined the irritancy of 11 commonly used biocides (1,2-benzisothiazol-3(2H)-one [BIT], 2-phenoxyethanol [PE], zinc pyrithione, 2-bromo-2-nitropropane-1,3-diol, 3-iodoprop-2-ynyl N-butylcarbamate [IPBC], 2-octyl-1,2-thiazol-3-one, 2,2-dibromo-2-cyanoacetamide, 4-chloro-3-methylphenol [CC], 2-phenylphenol, deltamethrin, and 4,5-dichloro-2-octyl-1,2-thiazol-3-one) in the KeraSkin™ and SoluAirway™ by viability and histological examinations. BIT and CC were found to cause skin irritation at the approved concentrations or at the concentration close to approved limit while the others were non-irritants within the approved concentration. These results were confirmed via histology, wherein skin irritants induced erosion, vacuolation, and necrosis of the tissue. In the SoluAirway™, most of the biocides decreased cell viability even within the approved limits, except for PE, IPBC, and deltamethrin, suggesting that the airway may be more vulnerable to biocides than the skin. Taken together, our result indicates that some biocides can induce toxicity in skin and airway. Further studies on the dermal and inhalational toxicity of biocides are warranted.

Original languageEnglish
Article number112064
JournalFood and Chemical Toxicology
Volume150
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Apr

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by the Korea Environment Industry & Technology Institute through Technology Program for establishing biocide safety management program, funded by the Ministry of Environment of South Korea (2019002490005, 1485016722 and 2019002490004, 1485016253) and by a research fund from the R&D Institute, Biosolution Co. Ltd.

Funding Information:
This work was supported by the Korea Environment Industry & Technology Institute through Technology Program for establishing biocide safety management program, funded by the Ministry of Environment of South Korea ( 2019002490005 , 1485016722 and 2019002490004 , 1485016253 ) and by a research fund from the R&D Institute, Biosolution Co., Ltd.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 Elsevier Ltd

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Food Science
  • Toxicology

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