Smart patch for skin temperature: Preliminary study to evaluate psychometrics and feasibility

Heejung Kim, Sunkook Kim, Mingoo Lee, Yumie Rhee, Sungho Lee, Yi Rang Jeong, Sunju Kang, Muhammad Naqi, Soyun Hong

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


There is a need for continuous, non-invasive monitoring of biological data to assess health and wellbeing. Currently, many types of smart patches have been developed to continuously monitor body temperature, but few trials have been completed to evaluate psychometrics and feasibility for human subjects in real-life scenarios. The aim of this feasibility study was to evaluate the relia-bility, validity and usability of a smart patch measuring body temperature in healthy adults. The smart patch consisted of a fully integrated wearable wireless sensor with a multichannel temperature sensor, signal processing integrated circuit, wireless communication feature and a flexible bat-tery. Thirty-five healthy adults were recruited for this test, carried out by wearing the patches on their upper chests for 24 h and checking their body temperature six times a day using infrared forehead thermometers as a gold standard for testing validity. Descriptive statistics, one-sampled and independent t-tests, Pearson’s correlation coefficients and Bland-Altman plot were examined for body temperatures between two measures. In addition, multiple linear regression, receiver operat-ing characteristic (ROC) and qualitative content analysis were conducted. Among the 35 partici-pants, 29 of them wore the patch for over 19 h (dropout rate: 17.14%). Mean body temperature measured by infrared forehead thermometers and smart patch ranged between 32.53 and 38.2 °C per person and were moderately correlated (r = 0.23–0.43) overall. Based on a Bland-Altman plot, approximately 94% of the measurements were located within one standard deviation (upper limit = 4.52, lower limit = −5.82). Most outliers were identified on the first measurement and were located below the lower limit. It is appropriate to use 37.5 °C in infrared forehead temperature as a cutoff to define febrile conditions. Users’ position while checking and ambient temperature and humidity are not affected to the smart patch body temperature. Overall, the participants showed high usabil-ity and satisfaction on the survey. Few participants reported discomfort due to limited daily activ-ity, itchy skin or detaching concerns. In conclusion, epidermal electronic sensor technologies pro-vide a promising method for continuously monitoring individuals’ body temperatures, even in real-life situations. Our study findings show the potential for smart patches to monitoring non-febrile condition in the community.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1855
Pages (from-to)1-16
Number of pages16
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Mar 1

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Funding: This study was supported by faculty research funds granted by the College of Nursing (6-2017-0110) and College of Medicine (6-2018-0202) at Yonsei University. This research was supported in part by the Institute of Information and communications Technology Planning and Evaluation grant funded by the Korea Government (Ministry of Science, ICT) (2020-0-02152). This work was supported by the Korea Basic Science Institute(KBSI) National Research Facilities and Equipment Center (NFEC) grant funded by the Korea government (Ministry of Education) (No. 2019R1A6C1010031). This work was supported in part by the National Research Foundation of Korea under Grant NRF-2016M3A9F1941829. The funding sources do not have any role involving in study design, collection, analysis, and interpretation of data, writing of the report.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Information Systems
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Biochemistry
  • Instrumentation
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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