Smectite, illite, and early diagenesis in South Pacific Gyre subseafloor sediment

Kiho Yang, Jin-Wook Kim, Toshihiro Kogure, Hailiang Dong, Hionsuck Baik, Bryce Hoppie, Robert Harris

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

8 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Subseafloor sediment and basalt rock samples at seven sites in the South Pacific Gyre (SPG) were recovered by Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 329 (2010.10.8–2010.12.13). Microscopic and spectroscopic measurements on the structural Fe-redox states and the elemental composition of smectite, and polytypes of illite in the sediment at two sites (U1365 and U1369) were performed to understand the origin/formation mechanism of clay minerals in the oligotrophic open ocean. The dominant phases of clay minerals found in the present study were smectite and illite polytypes. Suggestive of non-uniform early diagenetic processes in the expansive SPG seafloor, higher ordering of illite polytypes (1M, 2M1, and 3T) were identified at site U1369 while disordered 1Md illite were found at U1365. Smectites of hydrothermal origin (Al-rich beidellite, and saponite) were observed at U1369. Fe-rich montmorillonite minerals that are likely associated with the terrigenous input, were dominant at U1365. Nontronite (Fe-rich smectite) was detected at both sites. Red-brown to yellow-brown semiopaque oxide minerals (RSO) were widely distributed with Fe-rich smectite near the basaltic crust at U1365. Lower observed heat flow at U1365 relative to U1369 provides a possible explanation for the observed variability in clay mineral speciation between these two sites. The presence of K-nontronite at the basalt/sediment interface at both sites indicates an oxidative basalt alteration; however variations in the oxidation states of structural Fe in nontronite measured by EELS indicate that reductive environment persists locally at the basalt/sediment interface.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)34-43
Number of pages10
JournalApplied Clay Science
Volume134
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2016 Dec 1

Fingerprint

gyre
illite
smectite
diagenesis
Sediments
nontronite
Clay minerals
basalt
clay mineral
sediment
Oxide minerals
beidellite
Bentonite
saponite
Electron energy loss spectroscopy
mineral
formation mechanism
Ocean Drilling Program
open ocean
montmorillonite

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Geology
  • Geochemistry and Petrology

Cite this

Yang, Kiho ; Kim, Jin-Wook ; Kogure, Toshihiro ; Dong, Hailiang ; Baik, Hionsuck ; Hoppie, Bryce ; Harris, Robert. / Smectite, illite, and early diagenesis in South Pacific Gyre subseafloor sediment. In: Applied Clay Science. 2016 ; Vol. 134. pp. 34-43.
@article{5183515f1d8e42ffb729918a24185a82,
title = "Smectite, illite, and early diagenesis in South Pacific Gyre subseafloor sediment",
abstract = "Subseafloor sediment and basalt rock samples at seven sites in the South Pacific Gyre (SPG) were recovered by Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 329 (2010.10.8–2010.12.13). Microscopic and spectroscopic measurements on the structural Fe-redox states and the elemental composition of smectite, and polytypes of illite in the sediment at two sites (U1365 and U1369) were performed to understand the origin/formation mechanism of clay minerals in the oligotrophic open ocean. The dominant phases of clay minerals found in the present study were smectite and illite polytypes. Suggestive of non-uniform early diagenetic processes in the expansive SPG seafloor, higher ordering of illite polytypes (1M, 2M1, and 3T) were identified at site U1369 while disordered 1Md illite were found at U1365. Smectites of hydrothermal origin (Al-rich beidellite, and saponite) were observed at U1369. Fe-rich montmorillonite minerals that are likely associated with the terrigenous input, were dominant at U1365. Nontronite (Fe-rich smectite) was detected at both sites. Red-brown to yellow-brown semiopaque oxide minerals (RSO) were widely distributed with Fe-rich smectite near the basaltic crust at U1365. Lower observed heat flow at U1365 relative to U1369 provides a possible explanation for the observed variability in clay mineral speciation between these two sites. The presence of K-nontronite at the basalt/sediment interface at both sites indicates an oxidative basalt alteration; however variations in the oxidation states of structural Fe in nontronite measured by EELS indicate that reductive environment persists locally at the basalt/sediment interface.",
author = "Kiho Yang and Jin-Wook Kim and Toshihiro Kogure and Hailiang Dong and Hionsuck Baik and Bryce Hoppie and Robert Harris",
year = "2016",
month = "12",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/j.clay.2016.03.041",
language = "English",
volume = "134",
pages = "34--43",
journal = "Applied Clay Science",
issn = "0169-1317",
publisher = "Elsevier BV",

}

Smectite, illite, and early diagenesis in South Pacific Gyre subseafloor sediment. / Yang, Kiho; Kim, Jin-Wook; Kogure, Toshihiro; Dong, Hailiang; Baik, Hionsuck; Hoppie, Bryce; Harris, Robert.

In: Applied Clay Science, Vol. 134, 01.12.2016, p. 34-43.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Smectite, illite, and early diagenesis in South Pacific Gyre subseafloor sediment

AU - Yang, Kiho

AU - Kim, Jin-Wook

AU - Kogure, Toshihiro

AU - Dong, Hailiang

AU - Baik, Hionsuck

AU - Hoppie, Bryce

AU - Harris, Robert

PY - 2016/12/1

Y1 - 2016/12/1

N2 - Subseafloor sediment and basalt rock samples at seven sites in the South Pacific Gyre (SPG) were recovered by Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 329 (2010.10.8–2010.12.13). Microscopic and spectroscopic measurements on the structural Fe-redox states and the elemental composition of smectite, and polytypes of illite in the sediment at two sites (U1365 and U1369) were performed to understand the origin/formation mechanism of clay minerals in the oligotrophic open ocean. The dominant phases of clay minerals found in the present study were smectite and illite polytypes. Suggestive of non-uniform early diagenetic processes in the expansive SPG seafloor, higher ordering of illite polytypes (1M, 2M1, and 3T) were identified at site U1369 while disordered 1Md illite were found at U1365. Smectites of hydrothermal origin (Al-rich beidellite, and saponite) were observed at U1369. Fe-rich montmorillonite minerals that are likely associated with the terrigenous input, were dominant at U1365. Nontronite (Fe-rich smectite) was detected at both sites. Red-brown to yellow-brown semiopaque oxide minerals (RSO) were widely distributed with Fe-rich smectite near the basaltic crust at U1365. Lower observed heat flow at U1365 relative to U1369 provides a possible explanation for the observed variability in clay mineral speciation between these two sites. The presence of K-nontronite at the basalt/sediment interface at both sites indicates an oxidative basalt alteration; however variations in the oxidation states of structural Fe in nontronite measured by EELS indicate that reductive environment persists locally at the basalt/sediment interface.

AB - Subseafloor sediment and basalt rock samples at seven sites in the South Pacific Gyre (SPG) were recovered by Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 329 (2010.10.8–2010.12.13). Microscopic and spectroscopic measurements on the structural Fe-redox states and the elemental composition of smectite, and polytypes of illite in the sediment at two sites (U1365 and U1369) were performed to understand the origin/formation mechanism of clay minerals in the oligotrophic open ocean. The dominant phases of clay minerals found in the present study were smectite and illite polytypes. Suggestive of non-uniform early diagenetic processes in the expansive SPG seafloor, higher ordering of illite polytypes (1M, 2M1, and 3T) were identified at site U1369 while disordered 1Md illite were found at U1365. Smectites of hydrothermal origin (Al-rich beidellite, and saponite) were observed at U1369. Fe-rich montmorillonite minerals that are likely associated with the terrigenous input, were dominant at U1365. Nontronite (Fe-rich smectite) was detected at both sites. Red-brown to yellow-brown semiopaque oxide minerals (RSO) were widely distributed with Fe-rich smectite near the basaltic crust at U1365. Lower observed heat flow at U1365 relative to U1369 provides a possible explanation for the observed variability in clay mineral speciation between these two sites. The presence of K-nontronite at the basalt/sediment interface at both sites indicates an oxidative basalt alteration; however variations in the oxidation states of structural Fe in nontronite measured by EELS indicate that reductive environment persists locally at the basalt/sediment interface.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84964690870&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84964690870&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.clay.2016.03.041

DO - 10.1016/j.clay.2016.03.041

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:84964690870

VL - 134

SP - 34

EP - 43

JO - Applied Clay Science

JF - Applied Clay Science

SN - 0169-1317

ER -