Smoking and rheumatoid arthritis

Kathleen Chang, So Min Yang, Seong Heon Kim, Kyoung Hee Han, Se Jin Park, Jae Il Shin

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

69 Citations (Scopus)


Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease caused by both genetic and environmental factors. Smoking has been implicated as one of the most important extrinsic risk factors for its development and severity. Recent developments have shed light on the pathophysiology of RA in smokers, including oxidative stress, inflammation, autoantibody formation and epigenetic changes. The association of smoking and the development of RA have been demonstrated through epidemiologic studies, as well as through in vivo and animal models of RA. With increased use of biological agents in addition to standard disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), there has been interest in how smoking affects drug response in RA treatment. Recent evidence suggests the response and drug survival in people treated with anti-tumour necrosis factor (anti-TNF) therapy is poorer in heavy smokers, and possible immunological mechanisms for this effect are presented in the current paper.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)22279-22295
Number of pages17
JournalInternational journal of molecular sciences
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 2014 Dec 3

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Catalysis
  • Molecular Biology
  • Spectroscopy
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Inorganic Chemistry

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  • Cite this

    Chang, K., Yang, S. M., Kim, S. H., Han, K. H., Park, S. J., & Shin, J. I. (2014). Smoking and rheumatoid arthritis. International journal of molecular sciences, 15(12), 22279-22295.