Purpose: Cataract is a very prevalent ocular disorder, and environmental risk factors for age-related cataracts have been widely investigated. We aimed to evaluate an association of dietary sodium intake and socioeconomic factors with the development of age-related cataracts. Methods: A cross-sectional case-control study based on the 2008-2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Dietary sodium intake was estimated using urinary sodium to creatinine ratio (U[Na+]/Cr). Results: Among a total 12,693 participants, 2,687 (21.1%) had cataracts and 10,006 patients without cataracts served as controls. The prevalence of cataracts increased with age and quartiles of U[Na+]/Cr (p for trend < 0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that factors related to the development of cataracts were age ≥ 50 years (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 15.34, 95% confidence interval [CI] 13.31-17.69), low income (aOR 1.85, 95% CI 1.64-2.09), low educational attainment (aOR 1.76, 95% CI 1.57-1.96), and high sodium intake (U[Na+]/Cr > 16.4 mmol/mmol; aOR 1.29, 95% CI 1.16-1.44). In a subgroup analysis, a robust effect on cataracts across U[Na+]/Cr quartiles was observed in patients ≥ 50 years of age (aOR 1.11, 95% CI 1.04-1.18), though not in younger patients (aOR 1.06, 95% CI 0.96-1.17). Conclusions: Our results suggest that high sodium intake and low socioeconomic status may affect the development of cataracts, and that a low-salt diet could be helpful for the prevention of cataracts in an older population. Furthermore, efforts to close gaps in health services due to socioeconomic factors may contribute to a reduction in the prevalence of cataracts.
Bibliographical notePublisher Copyright:
© 2015 Bae et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)