Softmaxout transformation-permutation network for facial template protection

Hakyoung Lee, Cheng Yaw Low, Andrew Beng Jin Teoh

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

5 Citations (Scopus)


In this paper, we propose a data-driven cancellable biometrics scheme, referred to as SoftmaxOut Transformation-Permutation Network (SOTPN). The SOTPN is a neural version of Random Permutation Maxout (RPM) transform, which was introduced for facial template protection. We present a specialized SoftmaxOut layer integrated with the permutable MaxOut units and the parameterized softmax function to approximate the non-differentiable permutation and the winner-takes-all operations in the RPM transform. On top of that, a novel pairwise ArcFace loss and a code balancing loss are also formulated to ensure that the SOTPN-transformed facial template is cancellable, discriminative, high entropy and free from quantization errors when coupled with the SoftmaxOut layer. The proposed SOTPN is evaluated on three face datasets, namely LFW, YouTube Face and Facescrub, and our experimental results disclosed that the SOTPN outperforms the RPM transform significantly.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings of ICPR 2020 - 25th International Conference on Pattern Recognition
PublisherInstitute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
Number of pages8
ISBN (Electronic)9781728188089
Publication statusPublished - 2020
Event25th International Conference on Pattern Recognition, ICPR 2020 - Virtual, Milan, Italy
Duration: 2021 Jan 102021 Jan 15

Publication series

NameProceedings - International Conference on Pattern Recognition
ISSN (Print)1051-4651


Conference25th International Conference on Pattern Recognition, ICPR 2020
CityVirtual, Milan

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MSIP) (NO. NRF-2019R1A2C1003306)

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 IEEE

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition


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