Sol-gel-immobilized Tris(2,2′-bipyridyl)ruthenium(II) electrogenerated chemiluminescence sensor for high-performance liquid chromatography

Nim Choi Han, Sung Hee Cho, Yu Jin Park, Woon Lee Dai, Won Yong Lee

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54 Citations (Scopus)


The sol-gel-immobilized Tris(2,2′-bipyridyl)ruthenium(II) [Ru(bpy)3 2+] electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) sensor was applied to the reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) determination of phenothiazine derivatives (promazine, chlorpromazine, triflupromazine, thioridazine, and trifluoperazine) and erythromycin in human urine samples. In this method, Ru(bpy)3 2+ was immobilized in sol-gel-derived titania (TiO2)-Nafion nanocomposite films coated on a dual platinum electrode. This method eliminates an extra pump needed for the delivery of Ru(bpy)3 2+ reagent into a reaction/observation zone in front of photomultiplier tube because the immobilized-Ru(bpy)3 2+ is recycled on the electrode surface by an applied potential at +1.3 V versus Ag/AgCl (3 M NaCl) reference electrode. The resulting analytical performances such as detection limit, working range, sensitivity, and measurement precision were slightly worse than those obtained with the conventional post-column Ru(bpy)3 2+ addition approach. The lack of significant interferences and the low detection limits for phenothiazine derivatives and erythromycin indicate that the proposed HPLC-Ru(bpy)3 2+ ECL detection method is suitable for the determination of those compounds in biological fluids.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)47-54
Number of pages8
JournalAnalytica Chimica Acta
Issue number1-2
Publication statusPublished - 2005 Jun 13

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by Korea Research Foundation Grant (KRF-2000-015-DP0239).

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Biochemistry
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Spectroscopy


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