Acute respiratory distress syndrome is the primary cause of death in patients with coron-avirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia. Our study aims to determine the association between serum markers and mortality in COVID-19 patients with respiratory failure. This retrospective study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital in South Korea. Forty-nine patients with COVID-19, who required high flow nasal cannulation or mechanical ventilation from February 2020 to April 2021, were included. Demographic and laboratory data were analyzed at baseline and on Day 7 of admission. We found that serum creatinine, troponin, procalcitonin, and soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R) at baseline were more elevated in the non-survivor group, but were not associated with mechanical ventilator use on Day 7. Older age, PaO2/FiO2 ratio, lymphocyte and platelet counts, lactate dehydrogenase, IL-6, C-reactive protein, and sIL-2R on Day 7 were significantly associated with mortality. Delta sIL-2R (Day 7–Day 0) per standard deviation was significantly higher in the non-survivor group (adjusted hazard ratio 3.225, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.151–9.037, p = 0.026). Therefore, sIL-2R could predict mortality in COVID-19 patients with respiratory failure. Its sustained elevation suggests a hyper-inflammatory state, and mirrors the severity of COVID-19 in patients with respiratory failure, thereby warranting further attention.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Funding: The funding was Korea Health Technology R&D Project through the Korea Health Industry Development Institute (KHIDI), funded by the Ministry of Health & Welfare, Republic of Korea (grant number: HC20C0036, Young Sam Kim) and Korea Medical Device Development Fund grant funded by the Korean government (the Ministry of Science and ICT, the Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy, the Ministry of Health & Welfare, the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety) (Project Number: 202011B26, Su Hwan Lee).
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