BACKGROUND: Soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is associated with cardiovascular risks and poor renal outcomes. However, whether elevated suPAR levels are associated with 24-hour blood pressure patterns or kidney disease progression in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 751 patients with CKD stage 1 to 5 were recruited from CMERC-HI (Cardiovascular and Metabolic Disease Etiology Research Center-High Risk) cohort study (2013-2018). The relationship of serum suPAR levels to 24-hour blood pressure parameters and CKD progression was analyzed. The median serum suPAR level was 1439.0 (interquartile range, 1026.2-2150.1) pg/mL, and the mean estimated glomerular filtration rate was 52.8±28.5 mL/min per 1.73 m2 at baseline. Patients with higher suPAR levels had significantly higher levels of office, 24-hour, daytime, and nighttime systolic blood pressure and nighttime diastolic blood pressure than those with lower suPAR levels. The highest suPAR tertile was associated with an increased risk of a reverse dipping pattern (odds ratio, 2.93; 95% CI, 1.27-6.76; P=0.01). During a follow-up of 43.2 (interquartile range, 27.0-55.6) months, the CKD progression occurred in 271 (36.1%) patients. The highest suPAR tertile was significantly associated with higher risk of CKD progression than the lowest tertile (hazard ratio [HR], 2.09; 95% CI, 1.37-3.21; P=0.001). When the relationship was reevaluated with respect to each dipping pattern (dipper, extreme dipper, nondipper, and reverse dipper), this association was consistent only in reverse dippers in whom the risk of CKD progression increased (HR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.02-2.01; P=0.03) with every 1-unit increase in serum suPAR levels. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated suPAR levels are independently associated with CKD progression, and this association is prominent in reverse dippers.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This research was supported by a grant from the Korean Health Technology Research and Development (R&D) Project through the Korea Health Industry Development Institute, funded by the Ministry of Health and Welfare, Republic of Korea (grant HI13C0715; Dr S. Park) and a research grant from the Korean Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (grant 2018ER630202; Dr S. Park). Also, this study was supported by a faculty research grant of Yonsei University College of Medicine (6-2019-0170 and 6-2014-0114) and research grant from the Korean Society of Nephrology (Young Investigator Grant, 2016).
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine