Background: Sonophoresis can increase the delivery efficiency of various drugs into the skin. A recent advance in sonophoresis is the use of ultrasound-responsive liquid-core nuclei (URLN) to increase the probability of cavitation. In this study, we developed a URLN and ultrasound device, and demonstrated its effectiveness through in vitro and clinical tests. Materials and methods: Three types of experiments were designed to evaluate the efficiency of sonophoresis with URLN. First, a Franz diffusion cell with cosmetic ingredients was used to analyze quantitatively the amount of drug delivered to the porcine skin. Second, after the application of sonophoresis with URLN, the porcine skin surface was examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to see the changes in morphology. Finally, a clinical test was performed to verify the utility of sonophoresis with URLN. Results: The results indicate that sonophoresis with URLN can increase the amount of compound delivered by approximately 11.9-fold over 6 h for niacinamide and by 7.33-fold over 6 h for adenosine. In addition, we observed approximately 20–30 μm sized pores on porcine skin in SEM images. In clinical testing, the application of sonophoresis with cosmetics containing URLN for 3 min improved the efficiency of transdermal drug delivery by 1.9-fold, the depth of absorption by 2.0-fold, and the speed of absorption by 2.0-fold at 30 min after application. Conclusion: We expect that sonophoresis with specialized URLN in transdermal drug delivery could be used widely for various skin-related applications.
|Number of pages||8|
|Journal||Skin Research and Technology|
|Publication status||Published - 2022 Mar|
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by a Nuclear Research and Development Program of the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korean government (No. 2020R1A2C1008995).
© 2022 The Authors. Skin Research and Technology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
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