Necroptosis contributes to the pathophysiology of several inflammatory, infectious and degenerative disorders. TNF-induced necroptosis involves activation of the receptor-interacting protein kinases 1 and 3 (RIPK1/3) in a necrosome complex, eventually leading to the phosphorylation and relocation of mixed lineage kinase domain like protein (MLKL). Using a high-content screening of small compounds and FDA-approved drug libraries, we identified the anti-cancer drug Sorafenib tosylate as a potent inhibitor of TNF-dependent necroptosis. Interestingly, Sorafenib has a dual activity spectrum depending on its concentration. In murine and human cell lines it induces cell death, while at lower concentrations it inhibits necroptosis, without affecting NF-κB activation. Pull down experiments with biotinylated Sorafenib show that it binds independently RIPK1, RIPK3 and MLKL. Moreover, it inhibits RIPK1 and RIPK3 kinase activity. In vivo Sorafenib protects against TNF-induced systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). Altogether, we show that Sorafenib can, next to the reported Braf/Mek/Erk and VEGFR pathways, also target the necroptotic pathway and that it can protect in an acute inflammatory RIPK1/3-mediated pathology.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience
- Cell Biology
- Cancer Research