Recent years have seen tremendous advances in the field of hydrogel-based biomaterials. One of the most prominent revolutions in this field has been the integration of elements or techniques that enable spatial and temporal control over hydrogels’ properties and functions. Here, we critically review the emerging progress of spatiotemporal control over biomaterial properties towards the development of functional engineered tissue constructs. Specifically, we will highlight the main advances in the spatial control of biomaterials, such as surface modification, microfabrication, photo-patterning, and bioprinting, as well as advances in the temporal control of biomaterials, such as controlled release of molecules, photocleaving of proteins, and controlled hydrogel degradation. We believe that the development and integration of these techniques will drive the evolution of next-generation engineered tissues.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This paper was supported by National Science Foundation (EFRI-1240443), ONR PECASE Award, the Department of Defense Congressionally Directed Medical Research Programs (OR110196) and the National Institutes of Health (AR066193, AR063194, HL092836, DE019024, EB012597, AR057837, DE021468, DE022376, HL099073, EB008392, AR069564, AR007505, HL137193, and EB024403). Dr. Leijten acknowledges financial support from Innovative Research Incentives Scheme Veni #14328 of the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO). Dr. Seo was partially supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (2016R1A6A3A03006491). Dr. Zhang acknowledges the National Cancer Institute of the National Institutes of Health Pathway to Independence Award (K99CA201603). This paper has been partially funded by the Tec de Monterrey and MIT Nanotechnology Program.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Materials Science(all)
- Mechanics of Materials
- Mechanical Engineering