Recent studies on supercapacitors have focused on the development of hierarchical nanostructured carbons by combining two-dimensional graphene and other conductive sp 2 carbons, which differ in dimensionality, to improve their electrochemical performance. Herein, we report a strategy for synthesizing a hierarchical graphene-based carbon material, which we shall refer to as spine-like nanostructured carbon, from a one-dimensional graphitic carbon nanofiber by controlling the local graphene/graphitic structure via an expanding process and a co-solvent exfoliation method. Spine-like nanostructured carbon has a unique hierarchical structure of partially exfoliated graphitic blocks interconnected by thin graphene sheets in the same manner as in the case of ligaments. Owing to the exposed graphene layers and interconnected sp 2 carbon structure, this hierarchical nanostructured carbon possesses a large, electrochemically accessible surface area with high electrical conductivity and exhibits high electrochemical performance.
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