Background Although intensive statin therapy is recommended for high risk patients, evidence of its benefit in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) and very low low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) has been very rare. In this study, we investigated whether higher statin intensity reduces cardiovascular risks in this population. Methods In this retrospective study, a total of 5234 patients with stable CAD were screened at three tertiary hospitals in Korea; 449 patients (mean age: 65 years, male: 69%) with LDL-C <80 mg/dL were finally analyzed. The statin intensities were classified according to the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines. Patients who received statins equivalent to or weaker than atorvastatin 10 mg (group 1) were compared with those who took statins equivalent to or stronger than atorvastatin 20 mg (group 2). The impact of statin intensity on major adverse cardiac events (MACE) was evaluated during follow-up. Results Group 1 and group 2 consisted of 181 patients (40.3%) and 268 patients (59.7%), respectively. The mean LDL-C level decreased to 52 and 57 mg/dL in group 1 and group 2, respectively, during follow-up. In a median follow-up of 4.5 years, patients of group 2 had a lower incidence of MACE (30 [16.6%] vs. 12 [4.5%], p <0.001), which were mostly related to a lower incidence of coronary revascularization. Cox proportional hazard analyses identified the statin intensity of group 2 (adjusted hazard ratio: 0.25, confidence interval: 0.11-0.55, p <0.001) and the baseline high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol level as independent determinants of MACE. Conclusion This study provides evidence that higher intensity statins are beneficial for cardiovascular outcomes in patients with stable CAD and very low LDL-C. Statins equivalent to or stronger than atorvastatin 20 mg are more effective than lower intensity statins.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This research was financially supported by the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education, Science, and Technology (2012R1A4A1029061 and 2014R1A1A2056104), the Bio and Medical Technology Development Program of the NRF funded by the Korean government, MSIP (2015M3A9B6029138), and the National Research Council of Science and Technology (NST) grant by the Korean government (MSIP) (No. CAP-12-2-KBSI). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
© 2016 Lee et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes