We describe a method for the statistical parametric mapping of low resolution electromagnetic tomography (LORETA) using high-density electroencephalography (EEG) and individual magnetic resonance images (MRI) to investigate the characteristics of the mismatch negativity (MMN) generators in schizophrenia. LORETA, using a realistic head model of the boundary element method derived from the individual anatomy, estimated the current density maps from the scalp topography of the 128-channel EEG. From the current density maps that covered the whole cortical gray matter (up to 20,000 points), volumetric current density images were reconstructed. Intensity normalization of the smoothed current density images was used to reduce the confounding effect of subject specific global activity. After transforming each image into a standard stereotaxic space, we carried out statistical parametric mapping of the normalized current density images. We applied this method to the source localization of MMN in schizophrenia. The MMN generators, produced by a deviant tone of 1,200 Hz (5% of 1,600 trials) under the standard tone of 1,000 Hz, 80 dB binaural stimuli with 300 msec of inter-stimulus interval, were measured in 14 right-handed schizophrenic subjects and 14 age-, gender-, and handedness-matched controls. We found that the schizophrenic group exhibited significant current density reductions of MMN in the left superior temporal gyrus and the left inferior parietal gyrus (P < 0.0005). This study is the first voxel-by-voxel statistical mapping of current density using individual MRI and high-density EEG.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Radiological and Ultrasound Technology
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
- Clinical Neurology