STDD: Short-term depression detection with passive sensing

Nematjon Narziev, Hwarang Goh, Kobiljon Toshnazarov, Seung Ah Lee, Kyong Mee Chung, Youngtae Noh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

35 Citations (Scopus)


It has recently been reported that identifying the depression severity of a person requires involvement of mental health professionals who use traditional methods like interviews and self-reports, which results in spending time and money. In this work we made solid contributions on short-term depression detection using every-day mobile devices. To improve the accuracy of depression detection, we extracted five factors influencing depression (symptom clusters) from the DSM-5 (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders), namely, physical activity, mood, social activity, sleep, and food intake and extracted features related to each symptom cluster from mobile devices’ sensors. We conducted an experiment, where we recruited 20 participants from four different depression groups based on PHQ-9 (the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, the 9-item depression module from the full PHQ), which are normal, mildly depressed, moderately depressed, and severely depressed and built a machine learning model for automatic classification of depression category in a short period of time. To achieve the aim of short-term depression classification, we developed Short-Term Depression Detector (STDD), a framework that consisted of a smartphone and a wearable device that constantly reported the metrics (sensor data and self-reports) to perform depression group classification. The result of this pilot study revealed high correlations between participants` Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) self-reports and passive sensing (sensor data) in physical activity, mood, and sleep levels; STDD demonstrated the feasibility of group classification with an accuracy of 96.00% (standard deviation (SD) = 2.76).

Original languageEnglish
Article number1396
JournalSensors (Switzerland)
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2020 Mar 1

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Funding: This work was supported in part by INHA UNIVERSITY Research Grant and in part by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF), funded by the Ministry of Education (NRF‐2017M3C4A7083534).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Information Systems
  • Biochemistry
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Instrumentation
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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