Strain influence diagrams for settlement estimation of both isolated and multiple footings in sand

Junhwan Lee, Jongwan Eun, Monica Prezzi, Rodrigo Salgado

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

33 Citations (Scopus)


Most of the existing methods for estimating settlements of footings in sand have been developed for either isolated square footings or for strip footings. The literature contains limited information on settlement analysis of rectangular footings, and, as a result, there is no way to accurately account for the effect of the footing length-to-width ratio on settlement. Additionally, no practical method exists for considering the interaction between neighboring footings in settlement estimates. In this paper, we use Schmertmann's framework to propose a method of settlement estimation that takes full account of both the footing length-to-width ratio and the proximity of neighboring footings. Three-dimensional nonlinear finite element analyses were performed for various multiple footing configurations. Plate load tests were performed in sands using both a single plate and two plates separated by various distances. The numerical and experimental results indicate that the shape of the footing (expressed through its length-to-width ratio) and the proximity of neighboring footings affect two parameters of the strain influence diagram (which is the basis for the settlement estimation method): the depth to the peak influence factor Izp and the depth of the strain influence zone. We propose new strain influence diagrams for estimation of settlement under these more general conditions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)417-427
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2008 Apr

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
  • Environmental Science(all)


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