Stratospheric gravity waves generated by Typhoon Saomai (2006) were simulated using a mesoscale model in a moving frame of reference following the typhoon. Waves with large amplitudes appear near the domain center because of strong convection in the eyewall of the typhoon. Convection bands propagating outward from the storm center also generate waves propagating to the stratosphere. Convective forcing is significant in various propagation directions, with maximum power in slowly moving eastward components due to convection in the eyewall. The forcing exhibits large amplitude at a speed of 8-16 m s-1 in the eastward direction in which spiral bands are mainly developed. Induced gravity waves in the stratosphere are dominant in the eastward, northeastward, and southeastward propagation directions, since westward waves are mostly filtered by the background wind below z = 25 km. While the typhoon moves northwestward for 78 h, the wave characteristics vary through time depending on the evolution of the eyewall and spiral bands. Horizontal wavelengths of waves are longer in the mature and decaying stages than in the developing stage of the typhoon, likely because of a more dominant concentric eyewall in the mature and decaying stages. The spectral peak of the waves is at ~20 km (~50 km) horizontal wavelength in the developing (mature) stage, and the wave amplitudes are larger in the developing stages. The dominant contribution to the momentumflux is from waves with horizontal wavelengths longer than 80 km. Positive momentum flux decreases with overall height and the resultant positive drag can cause deceleration of northeasterly background wind. Sensitivity of the model results to horizontal resolution reveals that small-scale waves resolved in the present simulations with 3-km resolution cannot be fully represented with 9-or 27-km resolutions.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Atmospheric Science