Introduction: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of apical filling material and the modification made to the apical preparation design in surgical endodontics on the areas of stress concentration in the mesial root of a mandibular molar using finite element analysis. Methods: The filling material was injected under 2 conditions (ie, with or without mineral trioxide aggregate retrograde filling). The apical preparation design was modified by extending the preparation mesially while maintaining a similar prepared area. We contained the displacement of all the nodes at the base of the supporting bone and applied a force of 150 N to the vertical axis. We analyzed stress generation and concentrations numerically for all cavity design groups. Results: In the presence of retrograde filling, the von Mises stress decreased gradually according to the enlargement of the prepared cavity in the subgroups. When the retrograde filling was absent, the von Mises stress increased as the prepared cavity enlarged. The modification of the apical preparation extending in the mesial direction showed a drastic decrease in stress concentration. Conclusions: Within the limitations of this study, it was advantageous to perform mesial retrograde preparation within the mesial root dentin to maintain a balanced root dentin on both sides of the apical preparation and create a low-stress field. The surgeon should be careful not to wash out or dislodge the retrograde filling material during obturation to avoid failure of surgery.
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