A detailed and quantitative investigation of the stress-state dependence of superplastic cavitation in fine-grained aluminum alloys has been carried out to develop clear evidentiary support to build future models. Several stress states, such as uniaxial tension, plane-strain tension, plane-strain compression, shear, and equibiaxial tension have been examined. Tests were carried out to large strain in an interrupted manner under a constant effective strain rate (εe) in the range of 10-4 to 10-2 s-1. Measurements of volume fraction, population density, and size distribution of cavities, made by image analysis via optical microscopy, show continuous emergence of new cavities as well as growth of cavities during superplastic straining. The total cavity volume fraction (V) increases exponentially with strain. The cavity growth rate, represented by η (equal to d ln V/ dεe), as well as the cavity population evolution rate with strain (dNc/dεe, where Nc is the cavity number/unit area) are found to increase with normalized mean hydrostatic tensile stress (σm/σe). An empirical equation for the biaxial forming limit in terms of the principal surface strains (ε1 and ε2) has been defined for a fixed cavity volume, as given by ε1 = a Vb - α ε2, where a and b are constants determined from ε1 values for plane strain (ε2 = 0). The value of b is found to be 0.2 to 0.3, and α is 0.4 to 1.0.
|Number of pages||15|
|Journal||Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A: Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science|
|Publication status||Published - 2003 Nov|
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Condensed Matter Physics
- Mechanics of Materials
- Metals and Alloys