Stretchable, Transparent Electrodes as Wearable Heaters Using Nanotrough Networks of Metallic Glasses with Superior Mechanical Properties and Thermal Stability

Byeong Wan An, Eun Ji Gwak, Kukjoo Kim, Young Cheon Kim, Jiuk Jang, Ju Young Kim, Jang Ung Park

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

114 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Mechanical robustness, electrical and chemical reliabilities of devices against large deformations such as bending and stretching have become the key metrics for rapidly emerging wearable electronics. Metallic glasses (MGs) have high elastic limit, electrical conductivity, and corrosion resistance, which can be promising for applications in wearable electronics. However, their applications in wearable electronics or transparent electrodes have not been extensively explored so far. Here, we demonstrate stretchable and transparent electrodes using CuZr MGs in the form of nanotrough networks. MG nanotroughs are prepared by electrospinning and cosputtering process, and they can be transferred to various desired substrates, including stretchable elastomeric substrates. The resulting MG nanotrough network is first utilized as a stretchable transparent electrode, presenting outstanding optoelectronic (sheet resistance of 3.8 Ω/sq at transmittance of 90%) and mechanical robustness (resistance change less than 30% up to a tensile strain of 70%) as well as excellent chemical stability against hot and humid environments (negligible degradation in performance for 240 h in 85% relative humidity and 85 °C). A stretchable and transparent heater based on the MG nanotrough network is also demonstrated with a wide operating temperature range (up to 180 °C) and excellent stretchability (up to 70% in the strain). The excellent mechanical robustness of these stretchable transparent electrode and heater is ascribed to the structural configuration (i.e., a nanotrough network) and inherent high elastic limit of MGs, as supported by experimental results and numerical analysis. We demonstrate their real-time operations on human skin as a wearable, transparent thermotherapy patch controlled wirelessly using a smartphone as well as a transparent defroster for an automobile side-view mirror, suggesting a promising strategy toward next-generation wearable electronics or automobile applications.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)471-478
Number of pages8
JournalNano letters
Volume16
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2016 Jan 13

Fingerprint

Metallic glass
metallic glasses
heaters
Thermodynamic stability
thermal stability
mechanical properties
Mechanical properties
Electrodes
electrodes
automobiles
electronics
Automobiles
real time operation
Tensile strain
Smartphones
Sheet resistance
Chemical stability
Electrospinning
Substrates
operating temperature

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Bioengineering
  • Chemistry(all)
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanical Engineering

Cite this

An, Byeong Wan ; Gwak, Eun Ji ; Kim, Kukjoo ; Kim, Young Cheon ; Jang, Jiuk ; Kim, Ju Young ; Park, Jang Ung. / Stretchable, Transparent Electrodes as Wearable Heaters Using Nanotrough Networks of Metallic Glasses with Superior Mechanical Properties and Thermal Stability. In: Nano letters. 2016 ; Vol. 16, No. 1. pp. 471-478.
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abstract = "Mechanical robustness, electrical and chemical reliabilities of devices against large deformations such as bending and stretching have become the key metrics for rapidly emerging wearable electronics. Metallic glasses (MGs) have high elastic limit, electrical conductivity, and corrosion resistance, which can be promising for applications in wearable electronics. However, their applications in wearable electronics or transparent electrodes have not been extensively explored so far. Here, we demonstrate stretchable and transparent electrodes using CuZr MGs in the form of nanotrough networks. MG nanotroughs are prepared by electrospinning and cosputtering process, and they can be transferred to various desired substrates, including stretchable elastomeric substrates. The resulting MG nanotrough network is first utilized as a stretchable transparent electrode, presenting outstanding optoelectronic (sheet resistance of 3.8 Ω/sq at transmittance of 90{\%}) and mechanical robustness (resistance change less than 30{\%} up to a tensile strain of 70{\%}) as well as excellent chemical stability against hot and humid environments (negligible degradation in performance for 240 h in 85{\%} relative humidity and 85 °C). A stretchable and transparent heater based on the MG nanotrough network is also demonstrated with a wide operating temperature range (up to 180 °C) and excellent stretchability (up to 70{\%} in the strain). The excellent mechanical robustness of these stretchable transparent electrode and heater is ascribed to the structural configuration (i.e., a nanotrough network) and inherent high elastic limit of MGs, as supported by experimental results and numerical analysis. We demonstrate their real-time operations on human skin as a wearable, transparent thermotherapy patch controlled wirelessly using a smartphone as well as a transparent defroster for an automobile side-view mirror, suggesting a promising strategy toward next-generation wearable electronics or automobile applications.",
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Stretchable, Transparent Electrodes as Wearable Heaters Using Nanotrough Networks of Metallic Glasses with Superior Mechanical Properties and Thermal Stability. / An, Byeong Wan; Gwak, Eun Ji; Kim, Kukjoo; Kim, Young Cheon; Jang, Jiuk; Kim, Ju Young; Park, Jang Ung.

In: Nano letters, Vol. 16, No. 1, 13.01.2016, p. 471-478.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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AU - An, Byeong Wan

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