Variations in the structural and electrical properties of Bi 4Ti3O12 ferroelectric thin films in the Aurivillius family were investigated by substituting Nd3+ for Bi as Bi4-xNdxTi3O12 (x = 0, 0.35, 0.65, and 0.85) using a direct-patternable photochemical metal-organic deposition method. Photoemission spectroscopic and X-ray absorption spectroscopic analyses revealed that as the substitution of Nd3+ for Bi increased until x = 0.65, the orthorhombicity decreased followed by an increase in covalent mixing and centro-symmetry of the Ti-O octahedrons. However, an increase in polarization of the Ti-O octahedron due to Jahn-Teller distortion was observed due to the generation of oxygen vacancies at x = 0.85.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by Hynix Semiconductor Inc. of Korea. This work was also supported by the second stage of the Brain Korea 21 project in 2009. The experiments at PLS were supported in part by MOST and POSTECH.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
- Condensed Matter Physics