STT-MRAM Sensing: A Review

Taehui Na, Seung H. Kang, Seong Ook Jung

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

25 Citations (Scopus)


This brief presents a review of developments in spin-transfer-torque magnetoresistive random access memory (STT-MRAM) sensing over the past 20 years from a circuit design perspective. Various sensing schemes are categorized and described according to the data-cell variation-tolerant characteristics, pre-amplifiers, and offset tolerance. Key breakthroughs for achieving the optimal reference scheme, read disturbance prevention, read energy reduction, accurate yield estimation, and overcoming other non-idealities are discussed. This review is intended to facilitate further enhancement of STT-MRAM sensing in advanced technology nodes, thereby fulfilling STT-MRAM's potential as a universal memory.

Original languageEnglish
Article number9270597
Pages (from-to)12-18
Number of pages7
JournalIEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Jan

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Manuscript received October 26, 2020; accepted November 21, 2020. Date of publication November 25, 2020; date of current version December 21, 2020. This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea Government (MSIT) under Grant 2020R1F1A1060395. This brief was recommended by Associate Editors Y. Ha and E. Bonizzoni. (Corresponding author: Taehui Na.) Taehui Na is with the Department of Electronics Engineering, Incheon National University, Incheon 22012, South Korea (e-mail:

Publisher Copyright:
© 2004-2012 IEEE.

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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