With the technology scaling, cell-to-cell interference becomes larger in NAND flash memories. This makes it challenging to obtain narrow threshold voltage (Vth) distribution in two times nanometer floating gate technologies. Moreover, Vth distribution is further degraded after experiencing program and erase (P/E) cycles, impeding reliable operations. In this letter, we find that Vth values of programmed cells transiently increases after programming execution, leading to different Vth values between verify and read operations. This effect becomes worse by P/E cycles, degrading the Vth distribution of the programmed cells after P/E cycles. We consider that such a phenomenon occurs, since the electric field across tunneling oxide makes trapped tunneling-electrons migrate to other trap sites inside the oxide, namely, trapped tunneling-electron migration (TTEM). Our experiments show that the effect of TTEM can be significantly reduced by applying negative pulse between programming pulse and verifying. This informs that using such a technique, we are able to improve the reliability of NAND flash memories after P/E cycles.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported in part by the National Research Foundation of Korea under Grant 2015M1A3A3A02010753 and in part by Kyung Hee University under Grant 20120559. The review of this letter was arranged by Editor D. Ha.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering