Submillimeter Array identification of the millimeter-selected galaxy SSA22-AzTEC1: A protoquasar in a protocluster?

Y. Tamura, D. Iono, D. J. Wilner, M. Kajisawa, Y. K. Uchimoto, D. M. Alexander, A. Chung, H. Ezawa, B. Hatsukade, T. Hayashino, D. H. Hughes, T. Ichikawa, S. Ikarashi, R. Kawabe, K. Kohno, B. D. Lehmer, Y. Matsuda, K. Nakanishi, T. Takata, G. W. WilsonT. Yamada, M. S. Yun

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Abstract

We present results from Submillimeter Array (SMA) 860 μm subarcsecond astrometry and multiwavelength observations of the brightest millimeter (S 1.1mm = 8.4 mJy) source, SSA22-AzTEC1, found near the core of the SSA22 protocluster that is traced by Lyα-emitting galaxies at z = 3.09. We identify a 860 μm counterpart with a flux density of S860 μm = 12.2 ± 2.3 mJy and absolute positional accuracy that is better than 0′′.3. At the SMA position, we find radio-to-mid-infrared counterparts, whilst no object is found in Subaru optical and near-infrared deep images at wavelengths ≤1μm (J > 25.4 in AB, 2δ). The photometric redshift estimate, using flux densities at ≥24 μm, indicates z phot = 3.19+0.26-0.35, consistent with the protocluster redshift. We then model the near-to-mid-infrared spectral energy distribution (SED) of SSA22-AzTEC1, and find that the SED modeling requires a large extinction (AV ≈ 3.4 mag) of starlight from a stellar component with Mstar ∼ 1010.9M, assuming z = 3.1. Additionally, we find a significant X-ray counterpart with a very hard spectrum (Γeff =0.34+0.57 -0.61), strongly suggesting that SSA22-AzTEC1 harbors a luminous active galactic nuclei (AGNs; LX ≈ 3 × 1044 erg s-1) behind a large hydrogen column (NH ∼ 10 24 cm-2). The AGN, however, is responsible for only ∼10% of the bolometric luminosity of the host galaxy, and therefore the star formation activity likely dominates the submillimeter emission. It is possible that SSA22-AzTEC1 is the first example of a protoquasar growing at the bottom of the gravitational potential underlying the SSA22 protocluster.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1270-1282
Number of pages13
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Volume724
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2010 Dec 1

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spectral energy distribution
flux density
galaxies
astrometry
harbors
active galactic nuclei
erg
gravitational fields
energy
star formation
near infrared
harbor
extinction
luminosity
hydrogen
radio
wavelength
estimates
wavelengths
modeling

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science

Cite this

Tamura, Y., Iono, D., Wilner, D. J., Kajisawa, M., Uchimoto, Y. K., Alexander, D. M., ... Yun, M. S. (2010). Submillimeter Array identification of the millimeter-selected galaxy SSA22-AzTEC1: A protoquasar in a protocluster? Astrophysical Journal, 724(2), 1270-1282. https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/724/2/1270
Tamura, Y. ; Iono, D. ; Wilner, D. J. ; Kajisawa, M. ; Uchimoto, Y. K. ; Alexander, D. M. ; Chung, A. ; Ezawa, H. ; Hatsukade, B. ; Hayashino, T. ; Hughes, D. H. ; Ichikawa, T. ; Ikarashi, S. ; Kawabe, R. ; Kohno, K. ; Lehmer, B. D. ; Matsuda, Y. ; Nakanishi, K. ; Takata, T. ; Wilson, G. W. ; Yamada, T. ; Yun, M. S. / Submillimeter Array identification of the millimeter-selected galaxy SSA22-AzTEC1 : A protoquasar in a protocluster?. In: Astrophysical Journal. 2010 ; Vol. 724, No. 2. pp. 1270-1282.
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title = "Submillimeter Array identification of the millimeter-selected galaxy SSA22-AzTEC1: A protoquasar in a protocluster?",
abstract = "We present results from Submillimeter Array (SMA) 860 μm subarcsecond astrometry and multiwavelength observations of the brightest millimeter (S 1.1mm = 8.4 mJy) source, SSA22-AzTEC1, found near the core of the SSA22 protocluster that is traced by Lyα-emitting galaxies at z = 3.09. We identify a 860 μm counterpart with a flux density of S860 μm = 12.2 ± 2.3 mJy and absolute positional accuracy that is better than 0′′.3. At the SMA position, we find radio-to-mid-infrared counterparts, whilst no object is found in Subaru optical and near-infrared deep images at wavelengths ≤1μm (J > 25.4 in AB, 2δ). The photometric redshift estimate, using flux densities at ≥24 μm, indicates z phot = 3.19+0.26-0.35, consistent with the protocluster redshift. We then model the near-to-mid-infrared spectral energy distribution (SED) of SSA22-AzTEC1, and find that the SED modeling requires a large extinction (AV ≈ 3.4 mag) of starlight from a stellar component with Mstar ∼ 1010.9M⊙, assuming z = 3.1. Additionally, we find a significant X-ray counterpart with a very hard spectrum (Γeff =0.34+0.57 -0.61), strongly suggesting that SSA22-AzTEC1 harbors a luminous active galactic nuclei (AGNs; LX ≈ 3 × 1044 erg s-1) behind a large hydrogen column (NH ∼ 10 24 cm-2). The AGN, however, is responsible for only ∼10{\%} of the bolometric luminosity of the host galaxy, and therefore the star formation activity likely dominates the submillimeter emission. It is possible that SSA22-AzTEC1 is the first example of a protoquasar growing at the bottom of the gravitational potential underlying the SSA22 protocluster.",
author = "Y. Tamura and D. Iono and Wilner, {D. J.} and M. Kajisawa and Uchimoto, {Y. K.} and Alexander, {D. M.} and A. Chung and H. Ezawa and B. Hatsukade and T. Hayashino and Hughes, {D. H.} and T. Ichikawa and S. Ikarashi and R. Kawabe and K. Kohno and Lehmer, {B. D.} and Y. Matsuda and K. Nakanishi and T. Takata and Wilson, {G. W.} and T. Yamada and Yun, {M. S.}",
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Tamura, Y, Iono, D, Wilner, DJ, Kajisawa, M, Uchimoto, YK, Alexander, DM, Chung, A, Ezawa, H, Hatsukade, B, Hayashino, T, Hughes, DH, Ichikawa, T, Ikarashi, S, Kawabe, R, Kohno, K, Lehmer, BD, Matsuda, Y, Nakanishi, K, Takata, T, Wilson, GW, Yamada, T & Yun, MS 2010, 'Submillimeter Array identification of the millimeter-selected galaxy SSA22-AzTEC1: A protoquasar in a protocluster?', Astrophysical Journal, vol. 724, no. 2, pp. 1270-1282. https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/724/2/1270

Submillimeter Array identification of the millimeter-selected galaxy SSA22-AzTEC1 : A protoquasar in a protocluster? / Tamura, Y.; Iono, D.; Wilner, D. J.; Kajisawa, M.; Uchimoto, Y. K.; Alexander, D. M.; Chung, A.; Ezawa, H.; Hatsukade, B.; Hayashino, T.; Hughes, D. H.; Ichikawa, T.; Ikarashi, S.; Kawabe, R.; Kohno, K.; Lehmer, B. D.; Matsuda, Y.; Nakanishi, K.; Takata, T.; Wilson, G. W.; Yamada, T.; Yun, M. S.

In: Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 724, No. 2, 01.12.2010, p. 1270-1282.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Submillimeter Array identification of the millimeter-selected galaxy SSA22-AzTEC1

T2 - A protoquasar in a protocluster?

AU - Tamura, Y.

AU - Iono, D.

AU - Wilner, D. J.

AU - Kajisawa, M.

AU - Uchimoto, Y. K.

AU - Alexander, D. M.

AU - Chung, A.

AU - Ezawa, H.

AU - Hatsukade, B.

AU - Hayashino, T.

AU - Hughes, D. H.

AU - Ichikawa, T.

AU - Ikarashi, S.

AU - Kawabe, R.

AU - Kohno, K.

AU - Lehmer, B. D.

AU - Matsuda, Y.

AU - Nakanishi, K.

AU - Takata, T.

AU - Wilson, G. W.

AU - Yamada, T.

AU - Yun, M. S.

PY - 2010/12/1

Y1 - 2010/12/1

N2 - We present results from Submillimeter Array (SMA) 860 μm subarcsecond astrometry and multiwavelength observations of the brightest millimeter (S 1.1mm = 8.4 mJy) source, SSA22-AzTEC1, found near the core of the SSA22 protocluster that is traced by Lyα-emitting galaxies at z = 3.09. We identify a 860 μm counterpart with a flux density of S860 μm = 12.2 ± 2.3 mJy and absolute positional accuracy that is better than 0′′.3. At the SMA position, we find radio-to-mid-infrared counterparts, whilst no object is found in Subaru optical and near-infrared deep images at wavelengths ≤1μm (J > 25.4 in AB, 2δ). The photometric redshift estimate, using flux densities at ≥24 μm, indicates z phot = 3.19+0.26-0.35, consistent with the protocluster redshift. We then model the near-to-mid-infrared spectral energy distribution (SED) of SSA22-AzTEC1, and find that the SED modeling requires a large extinction (AV ≈ 3.4 mag) of starlight from a stellar component with Mstar ∼ 1010.9M⊙, assuming z = 3.1. Additionally, we find a significant X-ray counterpart with a very hard spectrum (Γeff =0.34+0.57 -0.61), strongly suggesting that SSA22-AzTEC1 harbors a luminous active galactic nuclei (AGNs; LX ≈ 3 × 1044 erg s-1) behind a large hydrogen column (NH ∼ 10 24 cm-2). The AGN, however, is responsible for only ∼10% of the bolometric luminosity of the host galaxy, and therefore the star formation activity likely dominates the submillimeter emission. It is possible that SSA22-AzTEC1 is the first example of a protoquasar growing at the bottom of the gravitational potential underlying the SSA22 protocluster.

AB - We present results from Submillimeter Array (SMA) 860 μm subarcsecond astrometry and multiwavelength observations of the brightest millimeter (S 1.1mm = 8.4 mJy) source, SSA22-AzTEC1, found near the core of the SSA22 protocluster that is traced by Lyα-emitting galaxies at z = 3.09. We identify a 860 μm counterpart with a flux density of S860 μm = 12.2 ± 2.3 mJy and absolute positional accuracy that is better than 0′′.3. At the SMA position, we find radio-to-mid-infrared counterparts, whilst no object is found in Subaru optical and near-infrared deep images at wavelengths ≤1μm (J > 25.4 in AB, 2δ). The photometric redshift estimate, using flux densities at ≥24 μm, indicates z phot = 3.19+0.26-0.35, consistent with the protocluster redshift. We then model the near-to-mid-infrared spectral energy distribution (SED) of SSA22-AzTEC1, and find that the SED modeling requires a large extinction (AV ≈ 3.4 mag) of starlight from a stellar component with Mstar ∼ 1010.9M⊙, assuming z = 3.1. Additionally, we find a significant X-ray counterpart with a very hard spectrum (Γeff =0.34+0.57 -0.61), strongly suggesting that SSA22-AzTEC1 harbors a luminous active galactic nuclei (AGNs; LX ≈ 3 × 1044 erg s-1) behind a large hydrogen column (NH ∼ 10 24 cm-2). The AGN, however, is responsible for only ∼10% of the bolometric luminosity of the host galaxy, and therefore the star formation activity likely dominates the submillimeter emission. It is possible that SSA22-AzTEC1 is the first example of a protoquasar growing at the bottom of the gravitational potential underlying the SSA22 protocluster.

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