The effects of depositing ultrathin (<1 nm) Al2O3 coatings on LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (LNMO) particles using atomic layer deposition (ALD) are presented. Promising electrochemical performance of the Al2O3 ALD coated LNMO at 30 °C is demonstrated in not only significantly improved coulombic efficiency, cycle retention, and rate capability, but also in dramatically suppressed self-discharge and dissolution of transition metals. Combined analyses by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, ex-situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and ex-situ time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry reveal that the solid electrolyte interphase layer on the Al2O3 ALD coated LNMO is much thinner and contains fewer organic species than the one on the bare LNMO. This difference originates from the suppression of the side reaction at high voltage by the Al2O3 ALD protective coating. Also, fluorination of Al2O3 ALD layer upon repeated charge-discharge cycling is confirmed, and this can account for the capacity increases during the initial charge-discharge cycles. Finally, it is also demonstrated that a full LNMO/Li4Ti5O12 battery incorporating the Al2O3 ALD coated LNMO outperforms the one incorporating only bare LNMO.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by LG Chem , by the Energy Efficiency & Resources Program of the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP) grant funded by the Korea Government Ministry of Trade, Industry & Energy (No. 20112010100150 ), by the MSIP (Ministry of Science, ICT & Future Planning), Korea, under the C-ITRC (Convergence Information Technology Research Center) support program (NIPA-2014-H0301-14-1013) supervised by the NIPA (National IT Industry Promotion Agency), and by the Future Strategic Fund ( 1.130019.01 ) of UNIST (Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology). Y. S. Jung appreciated Prof. Steven M. George at University of Colorado at Boulder for helping to build the rotary ALD reactor.
© 2014 Elsevier B.V.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
- Energy Engineering and Power Technology
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering