The optical technique of surface plasmon resonance phase imaging (SPR-PI) is implemented in a linear microarray format for real-time measurements of surface bioaffinity adsorption processes. SPR-PI measures the phase shift of p-polarized light incident at the SPR angle reflected from a gold thin film in an ATR Kretschmann geometry by creating an interference fringe image on the interface with a polarizer-quartz wedge depolarizer combination. The position of the fringe pattern in this image changes upon the adsorption of biomolecules to the gold thin film. By using a linear array of 500 μm biosensor element lines that are perpendicular to the interference fringe image, multiple bioaffinity adsorption measurements can be performed in real time. Two experiments were performed to characterize the sensitivity of the SPR-PI measurement technique: First, a ten line pattern of a self-assembled monolayer of 11-mercaptoundecamine (MUAM) was created via photopatterning to verify that multiple phase shifts could be measured simultaneously. A phase shift difference (Δβ) of Δβ = 182.08 ± 0.03° was observed for the 1.8 nm MUAM monolayer; this value agrees with the phase shift difference calculated from a combination of Fresnel equations and Jones matrices for the depolarizer. In a second demonstration experiment, the feasibility of SPR-PI for in situ bioaffinity adsorption measurements was confirmed by detecting the hybridization and adsorption of single stranded DNA (ssDNA) onto a six-component DNA line microarray patterned monolayer. Adsorption of a full DNA monolayer produced a phase shift difference of Δβ = 28.80 ± 0.03° at the SPR angle of incidence and the adsorption of the ssDNA was monitored in real time with the SPR-PI. These initial results suggest that SPR-PI should have a detection limit roughly 100 times lower than traditional intensity-based SPR imaging measurements.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Analytical Chemistry