Objective: Olfactory neuroblastomas are very aggressive tumors with a high locoregional recurrence rate and distant metastasis. Surgical treatment, including craniofacial resection, has been the main treatment modality, but treatment outcomes of concurrent chemoradiotherapy remain unclear. We present our experiences regarding the treatment outcome of patients with advanced olfactory neuroblastoma undergoing surgical treatment and concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 16 patients treated for advanced olfactory neuroblastoma within the past 10 years. Results: The disease-free 5-year survival rate of the patients (n = 10) who underwent surgical treatment was 68%. The survival rate for patients (n = 6) who received concurrent chemoradiotherapy was 42%. The difference in the survival rate was not statistically significant, and no difference in the recurrence rate between the two groups. In the group having surgical treatment, post-operative radiotherapy and salvage therapy were important to increase the survival rate. In the group having concurrent chemoradiotherapy, no patient experienced primary tumor progression. Conclusion: Complete surgical resection, including craniofacial resection (CFR), and post-operative radiotherapy seem to be essential in the treatment of advanced olfactory neuroblastoma. However, concurrent chemoradiotherapy may be another primary treatment modality.
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