Background: This study investigated survival in people living with HIV being followed-up from 5 and 10 years after antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation in a multi-country Asian cohort. Methods: We included patients in follow-up >5 years after ART initiation. Factors associated with mortality beyond 5 and 10 years on ART were analysed using competing risk regression with time-updated variables. Results: Of 13,495 patients retained after 5 years on ART, 279 subsequently died (0.56/100 person-years). Increased mortality was associated with age >50 years (sub-hazard ratio [sHR] 2.24, 95% CI 1.58, 3.15, compared with ≤40 years), HIV exposure through injecting drug use (sHR 2.17, 95% CI 1.32, 3.56), HIV viral load ≥1,000 copies/ml: sHR 1.52, 95% CI 1.05, 2.21, compared with <400), regimen (second-line regimen: sHR 2.11, 95% CI 1.52, 2.94, and third-line regimen: sHR 2.82, 95% CI 2.00, 3.98, compared with first-line regimen), HBV coinfection (sHR 2.23, 95% CI 1.49, 3.33), fasting plasma glucose ≥126 mg/dl (sHR 1.98, 95% CI 1.22, 3.21, compared with <100 mg/dl) and estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 ml/min/1.73 m2 (sHR 2.57, 95% CI 1.56, 4.22). Decreased mortality was associated with transmission through male-to-male sexual contact (sHR 0.44, 95% CI 0.22, 0.88, compared with heterosexual transmission) and higher CD4+ T-cell count (200-349 cells/µl: sHR 0.27, 95% CI 0.20, 0.38, 350-499 cells/µl: sHR 0.10, 95% CI 0.07, 0.16 and ≥500 cells/µl: sHR 0.09, 95% CI 0.06, 0.13, compared with <200 cells/µl). Results after 10 years were similar, but most associations were weaker due to limited power. Conclusions: Next to preventing ART failure, HIV programmes should carefully monitor and treat comorbidities, including hepatitis, kidney disease and diabetes, to optimize survival after long-term ART exposure.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database Low-Intensity TransfEr study is an initiative of TREAT Asia, a programme of amfAR, The Foundation for AIDS Research, with support from the US National Institutes of Health’s National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, the National Cancer Institute, the National Institute of Mental Health, the National Institute on Drug Abuse, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, and the Fogarty International Center, as part of the International Epidemiology Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA; U01AI069907). The Kirby Institute is funded by the Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing, and is affiliated with the Faculty of Medicine, UNSW Sydney. The PhD of RB has been supported through an Australian Government Research Training Program Scholarship. The content of this publication is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of any of the governments or institutions mentioned above. Additional acknowledgements can be found in Additional file 2.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Pharmacology (medical)
- Infectious Diseases