Many epidemiological studies have reported associations between ambient particulate matter (PM) and cardiovascular diseases. However, the effects associated with PM that promote cardiovascular events among susceptible populations who may respond differently than the general population to the same ambient air pollutants remain unclear. We conducted a time-series study with generalized additive models to assess the association between ambient PM10 and emergency department (ED) visits for ischemic heart disease (IHD) in Seoul, Republic of Korea from 2005 to 2009. The ED data and previous medical records within the 5 years of each IHD event to examine the effect of PM10 in a susceptible population were obtained from Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service. Overall, the adjusted relative risks (RRs) of ED visits for IHD were not statistically significant for PM10, but significant positive RRs were found for groups with hypertension (1.018; 95 % confidence interval [CI] 1.002–1.035) and those who are ≥80 years of age (1.019; 1.002–1.037) for same-day exposure and with diabetes (1.019; 1.002–1.037) for single-lag models. Subgroup analyses revealed gender differences in ED visits for IHD in hypertensive patients and those who are ≥80 years of age; positive correlations were found only in males with the lag models. Our study suggests that ambient PM10 is significantly associated with ED visits for IHD, especially in males with hypertension, diabetes mellitus, or who are aged ≥80 years. Identification of populations susceptible to air pollution is of paramount importance to establishing recommendations or guidelines for high-risk individuals.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The authors would like to thank the Ministry of Environment, National Meteorological Office, and Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service for providing the data for this study. This study was supported by the Korea Ministry of Environment (MOE) as the Environmental Health Action Program (2014001360002), by a grant from the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (NRF-2012R1A2A2A02045367) and grants from the Korean Healthcare technology R&D project funded by the Ministry of Health and Welfare (HI16C0058, HI15C1200).
© 2016, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Environmental Chemistry
- Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis