We herein report the first instance of the enhancement in membrane performance achieved by embedding graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets in both the polyamide (PA) active and polysulfone (PSf) support layers. The GO nanosheets were prepared via chemical exfoliation and separately dispersed in a PSf solution to fabricate the support layer and in an m-phenylenediamine (MPD) aqueous solution for interfacial polymerization of the PA layer. After precise characterization of the prepared membranes, membrane performances were evaluated using a lab-scale RO device. The water permeability and anti-biofouling property of the TFC membranes with embedded GO nanosheets in both the active and support layers were increased by 19% and 77%, respectively, compared with those of the TFC membranes with the GO nanosheets embedded only in the active layer. These increases were attributed to the changes in hydrophilicity, surface charge and surface roughness due to embedding of GO nanosheets in both layers.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This research was supported by the Technology Development Program to Solve Climate Changes of the National Research Foundation (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT & Future Planning (NRF-2010-0029075). MPD, ISOL-C, and PSf were provided by DuPont, SK Global Chemical Co., Ltd., and Solvay Korea, respectively.
© 2016 Elsevier B.V.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Materials Science(all)
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
- Filtration and Separation