Muscle loss is a serious complication in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) and chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, studies on a long-term change in muscle mass presence or absence of DM and CKD are scarce. We included 6247 middle-aged adults from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES) between 2001 and 2016. Bioimpedance analysis (BIA) was performed biennially. Patients were classified into four groups according to the presence or absence of DM and CKD. The primary outcome was muscle depletion, which was defined as a decline in fat-free mass index (FFMI) below the 10th percentile of all subjects. The secondary outcomes included the occurrence of cachexia, all-cause mortality, and the slopes of changes in fat-free mass and weight. During 73,059 person-years of follow-up, muscle depletion and cachexia occurred in 460 (7.4%) and 210 (3.4%), respectively. In the multivariable cause-specific hazards model, the risk of muscle depletion was significantly higher in subjects with DM alone than in those without DM and CKD (HR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.04–1.80) and was strongly pronounced in subjects with both conditions (HR, 3.38; 95% CI, 1.30–8.75). The secondary outcome analysis showed consistent results. The annual decline rates in FFMI, fat mass, and body mass index (BMI) were the steepest in subjects with DM and CKD among the four groups. DM and CKD are synergically associated with muscle loss over time.
|Number of pages||21|
|Publication status||Published - 2021 Sept 30|
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by a grant (NHIMC 2021-02-018) funded by the National Health Insurance Service Medical Center, Ilsan Hospital. The funding source had no role in the study design, data collection, data analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
© 2021. Lee et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Cell Biology