Synergistic anticandidal activity of xanthorrhizol in combination with ketoconazole or amphotericin B

Yaya Rukayadi, Kwanhyoung Lee, Myoung Su Lee, Dongeun Yong, Jae Kwan Hwang

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Candida species are responsible for the fourth most common nosocominal bloodstream infection. Xanthorrhizol, a sesquiterpene compound isolated from Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb. has been reported to have anticandidal activity. The aim of this study is to investigate the synergistic anticandidal effect of xanthorrhizol in combination with ketoconazole or amphotericin B against Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida guilliermondii, Candida krusei, Candida parapsilosis, and Candida tropicalis. Mostly, xanthorrhizol in combination with ketoconazole or amphotericin B exhibited the synergistic anticandidal effects against all species of Candida tested. In combination with xanthorrhizol, the concentration of ketoconazole or amphotericin B for inhibiting the growth of the tested Candida species could be reduced by ≥50%. Time-kill curves showed that 1/2 minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) dose of xanthorrhizol, amphotericin B, or ketoconazole alone against each of the six Candida species did not inhibit the growth of all Candida species tested. However, 1/2 MIC dose of xanthorrhizol in combination with 1/2 MIC dose of ketoconazole or 1/2 MIC dose of amphotericin B exhibited growth inhibition of all Candida species tested and reduced viable cells by several logs within 4 h. These results support the potential use of xanthorrhizol as an anticandidal agent, and it can be used complementarily with other conventional antifungal agents.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1302-1311
Number of pages10
JournalFEMS Yeast Research
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 2009 Dec 1


All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Microbiology
  • Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

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