The retrieval of optimal aerosol datasets by the synergistic use of hyperspectral ultraviolet (UV)–visible and broadband meteorological imager (MI) techniques was investigated. The Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) Level 1B (L1B) was used as a proxy for hyperspectral UV–visible instrument data to which the Geostationary Environment Monitoring Spectrometer (GEMS) aerosol algorithm was applied. Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) L1B and dark target aerosol Level 2 (L2) data were used with a broadband MI to take advantage of the consistent time gap between the MODIS and the OMI. First, the use of cloud mask information from the MI infrared (IR) channel was tested for synergy. High-spatial-resolution and IR channels of the MI helped mask cirrus and sub-pixel cloud contamination of GEMS aerosol, as clearly seen in aerosol optical depth (AOD) validation with Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) data. Second, dust aerosols were distinguished in the GEMS aerosol-type classification algorithm by calculating the total dust confidence index (TDCI) from MODIS L1B IR channels. Statistical analysis indicates that the Probability of Correct Detection (POCD) between the forward and inversion aerosol dust models (DS) was increased from 72% to 94% by use of the TDCI for GEMS aerosol-type classification, and updated aerosol types were then applied to the GEMS algorithm. Use of the TDCI for DS type classification in the GEMS retrieval procedure gave improved single-scattering albedo (SSA) values for absorbing fine pollution particles (BC) and DS aerosols. Aerosol layer height (ALH) retrieved from GEMS was compared with Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) data, which provides high-resolution vertical aerosol profile information. The CALIOP ALH was calculated from total attenuated backscatter data at 1064 nm, which is identical to the definition of GEMS ALH. Application of the TDCI value reduced the median bias of GEMS ALH data slightly. The GEMS ALH bias approximates zero, especially for GEMS AOD values of >~0.4 and GEMS SSA values of <~0.95. Finally, the AOD products from the GEMS algorithm and MI were used in aerosol merging with the maximum-likelihood estimation method, based on a weighting factor derived from the standard deviation of the original AOD products. With the advantage of the UV–visible channel in retrieving aerosol properties over bright surfaces, the combined AOD products demonstrated better spatial data availability than the original AOD products, with comparable accuracy. Furthermore, pixel-level error analysis of GEMS AOD data indicates improvement through MI synergy.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Acknowledgments: This study was supported by the Korea Ministry of Environment (MOE) under the Public Technology Program based on Environmental Policy (2017000160001). This work was also supported by a grant from the National Institute of Environment Research (NIER), funded by the Ministry of Environment (MOE) of the Republic of Korea (NIER-2018-01-02-032).
© 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
Copyright 2020 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Earth and Planetary Sciences(all)