Layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly techniques have been extensively studied in cell biology because of their simplicity of preparation and versatility. The applications of the LbL platform technology using polysaccharides, silicon, and graphene have been investigated. However, the applications of the above-mentioned technology using living cells remain to be fully understood. This study demonstrates a living cell-based LbL platform using various types of living cells. In addition, it confirms that the surplus charge on the outer surface of the coated cells can be used to bind the target protein. We develop a living cell-based LbL platform technology by stacking layers of hyaluronic acid (HA) and poly-l-lysine (PLL). The HA/PLL stacking results in three bilayers with a thickness of 4 ± 1 nm on the cell surface. Furthermore, the multilayer nanofilms on the cells are completely degraded after 3 days of the application of the LbL method. We also evaluate and visualize three bilayers of the nanofilm on adherent (AML-12 cells)-, nonadherent (trypsin-treated AML-12 cells)-, and circulation type [peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs)] cells by analyzing the zeta potential, cell viability, and imaging via scanning electron microscopy and confocal microscopy. Finally, we study the cytotoxicity of the nanofilm and characteristic functions of the immune cells after the nanofilm coating. The multilayer nanofilms are not acutely cytotoxic and did not inhibit the immune response of the PBMCs against stimulant. We conclude that a two bilayer nanofilm would be ideal for further study in any cell type. The living cell-based LbL platform is expected to be useful for a variety of applications in cell biology.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by the Nano-Material Technology Development Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science and ICT (no. 2017M3A7B8061942). This work is also supported by a grant of the Korea Health Technology R&D Project through the Korea Health Industry Development Institute (KHIDI), funded by the Ministry of Health & Welfare, Republic of Korea (grant number: HI14C3266).
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Materials Science(all)