Introduction: Many current guidelines on optimal target blood pressure (BP) for chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients are largely based on studies in diabetic and hypertensive patients. However, there have been few studies in patients with glomerular diseases. Methods: We retrospectively studied the longitudinal association between BP and CKD progression in 1,066 biopsy-proven patients diagnosed with primary glomerular diseases, including IgA nephropathy, membranous nephropathy (MN), and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), between 2005 and 2017. The main predictor was time-updated systolic blood pressure (SBP) at every clinic visit. The primary outcome was a composite one including ≥ 50% decrease in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) from the baseline, and end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). Results: During 5009 person-years of follow-up, the primary outcome occurred in 157 (14.7%) patients. In time-varying Cox model, the adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) (95% confidence interval (CI)) for the primary outcome were 1.48 (0.96–2.29), 2.07 (1.22–3.52), and 2.53 (1.13–5.65) for SBP of 120–129, 130–139, and ≥ 140 mmHg, respectively, compared with SBP < 120 mmHg. This association was particularly evident in patients with elevated proteinuria. However, there was no association between baseline SBP and adverse kidney outcomes. Finally, prediction models failed to show the improvement of predictive performance of SBP compared with that of remission status. Moreover, patients with remission and less controlled SBP had better kidney outcomes than those with non-remission and well-controlled SBP. Conclusion: Among patients with glomerular disease, higher time-updated SBP was significantly associated with higher risk of CKD progression. However, the clinical significance of blood pressure was less powerful than remission status. Graphic abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.]
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This research was supported by the Research of Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2019ER690101).
© 2021, Italian Society of Nephrology.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes