Thermally evaporated tellurium possesses an intriguing crystallization behavior, where an amorphous to crystalline phase transition happens at near-ambient temperature. However, a comprehensive understanding and delicate control of the crystallization process for the evaporated Te films is lacking. Here, the kinetics and dynamics of the crystallization of thermally evaporated Te films is visualized and modeled. Low-temperature processing of highly crystalline tellurium films with large grain size and preferred out-of-plane orientation ((100) plane parallel to the surface) is demonstrated by controlling the crystallization process. Tellurium single crystals with a lateral dimension of up to 6 µm are realized on various substrates including glass and plastic. Field-effect transistors based on 5 °C crystallized Te single grains (6-nm-thick) exhibit an average effective hole mobility of ≈100 cm2 V−1 s−1, and on/off current ratio of ≈3 × 104.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Synthesis work was supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Materials Sciences and Engineering Division under contract No. DE‐AC02‐05CH11231 within the Electronic Materials Program (No. KC1201). Device fabrication and measurements were supported by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency under Contract No. HR0011‐16‐1‐0004. Work at the Molecular Foundry was supported by the Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, of the US Department of Energy under Contract no. DE‐AC02‐05CH11231. The authors thank Jun Yi for help with Raman measurements.
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All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Materials Science(all)
- Mechanics of Materials
- Mechanical Engineering