The purpose of this study is to (1) develop an analytic framework to systematically code the players' cognitive process during Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Game (MMORPG) gameplay, and (2) to empirically explore the players' cognitive process. To construct the analytical framework of MMORPG gameplay, previous studies regarding gameplay and problem solving theory are reviewed. The specific gameplay actions and contents are derived by using a concurrent protocol analysis method. Consequently, gameplay actions are categorized into kinematics, perception, function, representation, methodology, and simulation. A new framework suitable for MMORPG gameplay is built. In order to study the players' cognitive process, the empirical experiment is executed during MMORPG gameplay. As a result of this study, we find a new problem space in the methodological scheme of gameplay. This study concludes with a number of key implications for game design in order to improve the quality of future gaming products.