We investigated the effect of stereotaxically transplanted human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) on behavioral change after traumatic cold brain injury in adult rats. Cortical lesions (n = 20) were induced by touching a metal stamp, cooled with liquid nitrogen, to the dura over the forelimb motor cortex of adult rats. The procedure produced a localized lesion, and the animals showed significant motor deficits. hMSCs were freshly isolated from human iliac bone and cultured in tissue culture flasks with 10 ml Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium. The animals received hMSC grafts (3 ×105 hMSCs) 6 days after cold lesion (n = 10). All rats were sacrificed 3 or 7 weeks after cold injury, and immunohistochemical staining was performed on brain sections to identify donor hMSCs. Neurological evaluations were performed with the forepaw adjusting step test and modified neurological scoring. Treatment with 3 ×105 hMSCs improved the rat's neurological functions. We also found that the transplanted cells successfully migrated into the injured brain, preferentially localized around the injury site, and expressed the neuronal and astrocyte marker. These data suggest that hMSCs may be a potential therapeutic tool for brain injuries.