Cellular plasticity in adipose tissue involves adipocyte death, its clearance, and de novo adipogenesis, enabling homeostatic turnover and adaptation to metabolic challenges; however, mechanisms regulating these serial events are not fully understood. The present study investigated the roles of arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase (Alox15) in the clearance of dying adipocytes by adipose tissue macrophages. First, upregulation of Alox15 expression and apoptotic adipocyte death in gonadal white adipose tissue (gWAT) were characterized during adipose tissue remodeling induced by β3-adrenergic receptor stimulation. Next, an in vitro reconstruction of adipose tissue macrophages and apoptotic adipocytes recapitulated adipocyte clearance by macrophages and demonstrated that macrophages co-cultured with apoptotic adipocytes increased the expression of efferocytosis-related genes. Genetic deletion and pharmacological inhibition of Alox15 diminished the levels of adipocyte clearance by macrophages in a co-culture system. Gene expression profiling of macrophages isolated from gWAT of Alox15 knockout (KO) mice demonstrated distinct phenotypes, especially downregulation of genes involved in lipid uptake and metabolism compared to wild-type mice. Finally, in vivo β3-adrenergic stimulation in Alox15 KO mice failed to recruit crown-like structures, a macrophage network clearing dying adipocytes in gWAT. Consequently, in Alox15 KO mice, proliferation/differentiation of adipocyte progenitors and β3-adrenergic remodeling of gWAT were impaired compared to wild-type control mice. Collectively, our data established a pivotal role of Alox15 in the resolution of adipocyte death and in adipose tissue remodeling.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Acknowledgements. We thank Dr Granneman for constructive comments on the manuscript and Dr Maddipadi for lipidomic analysis. This study was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea Grant (NRF-2014R1A6A3A04056472) to YHL, Yonsei Research Fund 2015-12-0216 and by Korea Mouse Phenotyping Project (2013M3A9D5072550) of the Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning through the National Research Foundation.
© The Author(s) 2016.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience
- Cell Biology
- Cancer Research